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7 Password Hygiene Best Practices to Follow 

Originally published:|Last updated:|Dashlane

With so many passwords and accounts needed to maintain our daily routines, it can sometimes seem overwhelming to try and manage passwords securely to protect our data and devices from cybercriminals. Password hygiene is a concept that distills safe password management into a set of logical and easy-to-follow password security best practices.

What is password hygiene?

Password hygiene practices apply a set of principles to manage password habits, identify vulnerabilities, and make sustainable improvements to your security profile. These principles include:

  • Selecting, managing, and maintaining strong passwords

Creating strong passwords is the first step on the path to password hygiene. Some of the essential requirements include using a mixture of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters in random order, avoiding common phrases and personal identifiers (such as your name and address) in your password, and using at least 12 characters.

Once strong passwords are in place, password best practices like encryption and 2-factor authentication help you continue the journey to improved password hygiene.  

  • Storing passwords securely

Safe password storage is the second pillar of password security, and this certainly doesn’t mean storage in drawers, spreadsheets, or browsers. To protect your passwords, you need to be sure that no one else can ever access them. The best way to store passwords safely is by using a password manager to create and store strong, encrypted passwords on secure external servers where they are protected.

Graphic of three icons representing ways audiences shouldn’t store passwords above a simplified representation of Dashlane Password Manager, shown as the example of what audiences should use to manage their passwords instead.
  • Keeping passwords private

Strong and safely stored passwords must also be kept private at all times. This means limiting password sharing with friends and family (and using a password manager to securely share passwords when absolutely necessary) and not forwarding passwords to others using email or text messaging. Proactive cybersecurity basics, including dark web monitoring, can verify that your efforts to maintain privacy are successful.

  • Paying attention to overall password health

Password health is closely linked to password hygiene and is defined by the number of weak, reused, or compromised passwords a person has stored. If you have a password manager, you should have access to a password health score. Regularly reviewing your score helps you identify what passwords to change to improve password health. For businesses, collectively working to improve password health is a great way to build a strong security culture.

7 best password hygiene practices to follow

Once you understand the basics of password hygiene, you can learn how to protect passwords and personal information consistently by applying a few password security best practices:

  1. Create strong passwords: Strong passwords that are as random and unpredictable as possible are much less vulnerable to hacking attempts and data breaches. Tools like password managers make it easy to generate  random, unpredictable passwords for all your accounts, then encrypt and store them safely. With a password manager, passwords are safely autofilled, so you no longer need to memorize them or write them down.
  2. Don’t reuse passwords: The high volume of new accounts we need to manage can make reusing passwords an easy habit to fall into, undermining password hygiene. Duplicate passwords weaken security by exposing multiple accounts if even one password is compromised. A password manager’s password health score identifies your reused passwords so that you can update them.
  3. Use multifactor authentication: 2-factor authentication (2FA) uses a second credential, such as a code sent through an app, to confirm your identity. This password best practice adds a few seconds to your login time but makes it much harder for a cybercriminal to access your accounts without having your device in their possession. Multifactor authentication (MFA) uses two or more factors for an even higher level of security. This can include biometric identifiers like fingerprints and facial recognition. 
Graphic of three icons representing the ways multifactor authentication verifies user identity through three steps: Step 1) Username and password entered into a browser, Step 2) Pin from mobile phone entered, and Step 3) Fingerprint verified.
  1. Use a VPN on public WiFi: Many of us regularly use public WiFi in cafés, airports, and hotels. Unfortunately, these public WiFi networks can expose data traffic to interceptors, making them a target of choice for hackers. A VPN mitigates this risk by encrypting all data going into or out of the device and routing it through a secure portal. A VPN also masks your IP address, allowing you to browse the internet privately.
  2. Don’t share passwords insecurely: Sharing passwords with friends and family for WiFi networks, subscription services, and retail accounts is nearly unavoidable. This habit also makes you more vulnerable if anyone using your password(s) is impacted by cybercrime. Good password hygiene includes taking steps to share passwords safely using a password manager and avoiding paper notes, texts, or even communication platforms like Slack, where unencrypted messages can be stored indefinitely. 
  3. Change your passwords only when necessary: How often should you change passwords? While there are no set rules, the digital identity guidelines published by the NIST explain that minor changes made during forced reset intervals have little value since hackers can use these predictable transformations to their advantage. This recognition, along with improved tools and technology like password managers, VPN, and 2FA, is making periodic resets like 30/60/90-day intervals obsolete. A safer and more logical approach to password resets calls for changing passwords only when:
  4. Use a password manager: A password manager is one of the best ways to incorporate password security best practices and password hygiene into your daily online routine. By utilizing automated password generation, storage, and autofill features, you no longer need to manually create and remember complex passwords for each of your accounts. A password manager also helps you monitor your password health and organize passwords to improve productivity.

The risks of poor password security

Why do you need to worry about password health and hygiene? As the number of passwords, accounts, and devices the average person uses has grown, so has the frequency of cyberattacks and hacking attempts. Poor password hygiene can also complicate your daily routine as you pause to hunt for or recover lost credentials. There are four key risks that good password hygiene can drastically reduce:

  1. Forgotten or lost passwords
Graphic of two lines with arrows leading from the words “forget it” to “reset it” illustrating the cyclical pattern of poor password management leading to consistent resetting of passwords. How To Remember All Hard-To-Remember Passwords.
  1. Brute-force attacks
  2. Credential stuffing
  3. Data breaches

Data breaches are security incidents that result in the disclosure of sensitive information like login credentials, account information, and intellectual property (IP). While hacking tactics are the methods used to gain unauthorized access to devices or servers, data breaches can be the costly result. These incidents are the most critical consequence of poor password security.

The Dashlane password manager makes it easy to improve your password hygiene, password health, and productivity all at once. Intuitive password creation features and a secure, protected vault help eliminate habits like password reuse and frequent password changes that can open the door to cyberattacks. A VPN adds a layer of security and convenience in public settings, while dark web monitoring ensures your credentials and identity always remain private.   

One of the best ways to improve password hygiene is by checking your Password Health Score found in Dashlane. Learn more about the benefits of this valuable feature in our handy one-sheet, Everything You Need to Know About Your Password Health Score.


  1. Dashlane, “How Strong Is Your Password & Should You Change It?,” August 2022.
  2. Dashlane, What is Encryption?,” March 2019.
  3. Dashlane, “Best Way to Store Passwords at Home or Work,” September 2022.
  4. Dashlane, “Putting Security First: How Dashlane Protects Your Data,” January 2023.
  5. Dashlane, “Do You Have These 6 Cybersecurity Basics Down?,” June 2022.
  6. Dashlane, “How to Shine a Light on the Dark Web,” June 2022.
  7. Dashlane, “Everything You Need to Know About Your Password Health Score,” 2023.
  8. Dashlane, “How to Create a Culture of Security,” March 2022.
  9. Dashlane, “Train Dashlane: Our Industry-First Feature Gives You Customized Autofill Accuracy and Control,” September 2022.
  10. Dashlane, “One of the Most Common Data Breaches Your Organization Can Prevent with One Step,” November 2021.
  11. Incognia, “What are the Key Differences between 2FA and MFA?,” 2022.
  12. Dashlane, “A Complete Guide to Multifactor Authentication,” November 2022.
  13. Dashlane, “Why Do You Need a VPN? Don’t Miss These 3 Key Benefits,” December 2022.
  14. Dashlane, “Sharing Passwords Through Slack Is Risky,” November 2019.
  15. Dashlane, “Share your saved items in Dashlane,” 2022.
  16. NIST, “Digital Identity Guidelines,” 2023.
  17. Dashlane, “How to Shine a Light on the Dark Web,” June 2022.
  18. Statista, “Annual number of data compromises and individuals impacted in the United States from 2005 to first half 2022,” 2022.
  19. Dashlane, “Data Breach or Hack? Know the Difference,” June 2021.
  20. Dashlane, “What the Hack is a Brute Force Attack?,” February 2020.
  21. Cloudflare, “What is credential stuffing? | Credential stuffing vs. brute force attacks,” 2023.
  22. Dashlane, “Everything You Need to Know About Your Password Health Score,” 2023.

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